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Глава 2

1. Max Weber, Assays in Sociology; edited by H. H. Gerth and C. Wright Mills (Oxford: Routledge, 1991), p. 216. Q< 2. J.B. Ruhl and James Salzman, “In Defense of Regulatory Peer Review/1 Washington University Law ftevieiv 84 (2006): 1-61. I ^ 3. Philip E. Tetlock, Expert Political Judgment: How Good is It? How Can We Know? (Princeton University Press, 2005), p. 20. 4. Ibid., p. 15. 5. Sсott E. Page, The Difference: How the Power of Diversity Crea tes Вetter Grou.ps> Firms, Schoolst and Societies (Princeton University Press, 2007). 6. Joaquin Sapien, “Industry-Packed Federal Advisory Board Told DOli to Double U, S. Coal Consumption/1 May 19, 2008 (www.propublica.org/article [October 2008]). 7. Sonya Lund er and Jane I ioulihan, “EPA Axes Panel Chair at Request of Chemical Industry Lobbyists,” March 2008 (www.ewg.org/reports/decaconflict [October 2008]). 8. U n io n о f С on ce r n ed Scientists," Resto ri ng S с ie n tifi с Integ rity in Pol icy maki ng: Scientists Sign-On Statement111 (www.ucsusa.org/scientific_integrity/abuses_ of_science.html [October 2008]). 9. Union of Concerned Scientists, “Interference at EPA: Science and Politics at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency,1' April 23, 2008 (www.ucsusa. org/EPAscience [October 2008]). 10. Chris Mooney, The Republican War on Science (New York: 13asic Books, 2005). 11. Government in the Sunshine Act, P. L. 409, 94th Cong. (September 13, 1976). 12. John Ashcroft, Memorandum for All Heads of Departments and Agencies, “The Freedom of Information Act,” October 12, 2001. 13. Sunshine Week, “More People See Federal Government as Secretive; Nearly All Want to Know Where Candidates Stand on Transparency/1 March 15, 2008 (www.sunshineweek.org/sunshineweek/secrecypoll08 [October 20081); Gup, Nation of Secrets: The Threat to Democracy and the American Way of Life (New York: Doubleday, 2007). 14. Amanda Terkel, “Bush Administration Hides More Data, Shuts Down Website Tracking U. S. Economic Indicators," February 13, 2008 (www.thinkpr ogress. org/2008/02/13/economic-indicators [October 2008]). 15. Paul Kiel, “Bush Admin: What You Don't Know Can’t Hurt Us, 2007 Version" November 23, 2007 (www.tpmmuckraker.talkingpointsmemo. com/archives/004766.php [October 2008]). 16. Ibid. 17. American Inventors Protection Act, P. L. 113, 106th Cong. (November 29, 1999). 18. U.S. Patent and Trademark Office, Ma7iual of Patent Examining Procedures, sec. 904.02 (c) (8th ed., 2001) («Эта политика также распространяется на использование Интернета в качестве средства связи для подключения к коммерческой базе данных провайдерами. S. Patent and Trademark Office, “Patent Internet Usage Policy,1' 64 Federal Register (June 21, 1999), p. 33060. 19. Carrotmob (www.carrotmob.org [October 2008]). 20. Obama Works (www.whyobamaworks.org [October 20081). 21. Tech for Obama (www.techforobama.com [October 20081). 22. Silicon Valley for Obama (www.sv4obama.com [October 2008]). 23. WashingtonWatch (www.washingtonwatch.com [October 20081). 24. OpenSecrets (www.opensecrets.org [September 20081); Fund race (http:// fundrace.huffingtonpost.com [October 2008]). 25. PublicMarkup (www.publicmarkup.org [October 2008]); см. также: iillen Miller, “You Can Markup the Bills on the Mortgage Industry Bail Out," September 22, 2008 (blog.sunlightfoundation.com/2008/09/22 [October 20081). 26. MapLight (www.maplight.org [October 2008]). 27. Connecticut Policy and Economic Connell (www.city-scan.org [October 20081). 28. Frank Richard Cowell, The Athenaeum: Club and Social Life in London, 18241974 (London: lleinemann, 1975). 29. Stephen M. Kosslyn, LLOn the Evolution of Human Motivation: The Role of Social Prosthetic Systems/3 in Evolutionary Cognitive Neuroscience, edited by S.M. Platek, Т.К.
Shackelford, and J.P. Keenan (MIT Press, 2006); A, W. Wooley and others, 'Using Brain-Based Measures to Compose Teams: How Individual Capabilities and Team Collaboration Strategies Jointly Shape Performance/7 Social Neuroscience 2 (2007): 96-105. 30. Edward Day ColLins, “Committees of Correspondence of the American Revolution/1 Annual Report of the American Historical Association (1901): 245-271. 31. Harvey Anderson, “Intellectual Property and Free Expression/1 лекция, Stanford University, May 27, 2008 (примечания в тексте сделаны автором). 32. Mitchell Baker, Mozilla Foundation chairman of the board, “Summer 2008 Goals/' May 14^ 2008 (blog.lizardwrangler.com/2008/05/14 [October 20081). 33. "Energy Bill Bans Incandescent Lightbulbs." Более полную информацию о ртуть содержащих лампах см. на сайте ЕРА (wwvv.epa.gov/cpawaste/ hazard/wastetypes/ universal /lamps /index.htm [October 2008]). Более полную информацию о мандате конгресса см.: Matthew Wald, (А U. S. Alliance to Update the LightbuIb/’Nei-v York Times, March 14, 2007^ p. C3. 34. Henry Fountain, “A Cloth to Cut the Mercury Risk from Lightbulbs/’ New York Times* July 8, 2008, p. F3, 35. Frank Newport, ' Bush’s 69% Job Disapproval Rating Highest in Gallup History/ April 22, 2008 (www.gallup.com/poll/106741 [October 20081); ^Congressional Approval Falls to Single Digits for First Time Ever/1 July 8, 2008 (www.rasmussenreports.com/pubiic_content/politics/mood_of. america/congressional_performance lOctober 2008]). 36. Rethink Building Proposal for Ground Zero,” New York Times, July 21, 2002, p. да. 53. См,, например: Howard Zinn, A Power Governments Cannot Suppress (San Francisco: City Lights, 2007). 54. Michael Sorkin, Starting from Zero: Reconstructing, Downtown New York (New York: Routledge, 2003)\ pp. 57-61. 55. Michael Schudson, The Good Citizen: A History of American Civil Life (New York: Free Press, 1998). 56. Есть ряд предложений в теории гражданского общества: Benjamin R. Barber* Strong Democracy (Princeton University Press, 1984); Richard E. Sclove, Democracy and Technology (New York: Guilford, 1996); Theda Skocpol and Morris P. Fiorina, eds.. CIVIC Engagement in American Democracy (Brookings, 1999). 57. Jack M. Balkin. “Digital Speech and Democratic Culture: A Theory of Freedom of Expression for the Information Society/1 New York. University Law Review 79 (2004): 1-58. 58. Идеальный тип группы включает*представителей всех слоев нашего общества; только Б этом случае при надлежащем финансировании она будет действовать беспристрастно, мудро, организованно и четко». Donald Guimary, Citizens Groups and Broadcasting (New York: Praeger, 1975), p. 148. 59. Andy Oram, “?n Search of Microelites: How to Get User-Generated Content,” November 14, 2007 {radar.oreilly.com/2007/ll/in-search-ofmicroelites- how-t.html [October 20081). 60. Joseph Nye, “Picking a President/1 Democracy Journal (Fall 2008): 19-28. 61. Sony Corp. of America v. Universal City Studios, 464 U. S. 417 j?l984). 62. Prioritizing Resources and Organization for Intellectual Property Act of 2008 (ProlP Act) S. 3325. Nate Anderson, “Big Content Gloats as Bush Signs Pro4P Act/1 ArsTechnica, October 14? 2008 (http://arstechnica. com /news.ars/post/200Sl014-bush-signs-pro-ip-act-big-content-gloats. html [December 20081); John Borland, “RIAA Settles with 12-Year-Old Girl," September 9, 2003 (http://news.cnet.com/2100' 1027-5073717. html [October 20081); Eric Bangeman, “RIAA versus Grandma, Part: H: The Showdown That Wasn't/1 December 16, 2007 (arstechnica.com/news. ars/post/20071216.html [October 2008]). См. также: MGM Studios Inc. v. Grokster, Ltd.? 545 U. S. 913 (2005) (peer-to-peer filesharing case) (arstechnica.com/news.ars/post/20081014.html [October 20081).
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Источник: Бет Новек. Wiki-правительство: Как технологии могут сделать власть лучше. демократию — сильнее, а граждан — влиятельнее. 2012

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